About Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos. In this disease, malignant cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), the heart,[1] the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart) or tunica vaginalis.

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways. It has also been suggested that washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos can put a person at risk for developing mesothelioma.[2] Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between mesothelioma and smoking, but smoking greatly increases risk of other asbestos-induced cancer.[3] Compensation via asbestos funds or lawsuits is an important issue in mesothelioma (see asbestos and the law).

The symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to pleural effusion (fluid between the lung and the chest wall) or chest wall pain, and general symptoms such as weight loss. The diagnosis may be suspected with chest X-ray and CT scan, and is confirmed with a biopsy (tissue sample) and microscopic examination. A thoracoscopy (inserting a tube with a camera into the chest) can be used to take biopsies. It allows the introduction of substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space (called pleurodesis), which prevents more fluid from accumulating and pressing on the lung. Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, the disease carries a poor prognosis. Research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is ongoing.

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sab behen bhaiyun ko salaamaaj mein aap ko aise tips bataane jaraha hoon jo aapko pehle kisi ne nahien bataye hongekiya aap ko pata hai?
LAN= Local Area Network
WAN= Wide area Network
MAN= Metropolitan Area Network
WLAN= Wireless Local Area Network
CMC= Computer Mediated Communication
BIOS= Basic Input Output System
SCSI= Small Computer System Interface
TCP/IP= Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
HAL= Hardware Abstraction Layer
IP= Internet Protocol
DHCP= Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS= Domain Name System
NETBEUI=Netbios extended User Interface
API= Application Program Interface
WINS= Window Internet Naming Services
YAHOO= Yet Another Hierarchial Officious Oracle
SMTP= Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
POP= Post Office Protocol
HTML= Hyper Text markup Lanuage
URL= Universal Resource Locator
NIC= Net Work Interface Card
HTTP= Hyper text Transfer Protocol
PING= Packet Internetwork Grouper
PKI= Public Key Infrastructure
UDP= User Datagram Protocol
FTP= File Transfer Protocol
DCPROMO=Domain Controller Promotion
FAT 16,32=File allocation Table
NTFS= New Technology File system
DVD= Digital Versatile Disc
ZIP= Zig-Zag inline Package
RARP= Reverse Address Resolution protocol
EAP= Extensble Authintication
ICMP= Internet Compuetr message Protocol
PXE= Pre-Boot Execution Enviroment
PNP= Plug And PalyPDF= portable Document Format

10 reasons why PCs crash U must Know

Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy," it says. "Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications."You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?

1. Hardware conflictThe number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number.When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route:

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.Often if a device has a problem a yellow '!' appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it.Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as 'IRQ holder for PCI steering'. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is http://www.driverguide.com" . Ifthe device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity.To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.

2 Bad Ram:Ram (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing.But a fatal error caused by Ram mightbe caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram is overworked.One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-basedprogrammes.

3 BIOS settingsEvery motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS latency of

3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of

2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer's display.Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOSsetting for Plug and Play OS is switched to 'yes' to allow Windows to do this.).

4... Hard disk drivesAfter a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk DefragmenterThis will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop).Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon-Performance-FileSystem-Hard Disk.Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-ScanDiskOtherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use.5 Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errorsFatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-SettingsHere you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take alook at the colour settings on the left of that window. For most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups it might be due to the video card. Make sure it does not have a hardware conflict. Go to* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device ManagerHere, select the + beside Display Adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear. Select it (make it blue) and press properties. Then select Resources and select each line in the window. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make a note of everything you do in case you make things worse.The way to resolve a hardware conflict is to uncheck the Use Automatic Settings box and hit the Change Settings button. You are searching for a setting that will display a No Conflicts message.Another useful way to resolvevideo problems is to go to* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-GraphicsHere you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a device).Look up your video card's manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.6 VirusesOften the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove ProgramsHere, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in aDAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer.An excellent antivirus programme is McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates . Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, made by Symantec .

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What is StockExchange

A stock exchange is a corporation or mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for stock brokers and traders, to trade stocks and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of securities as well as other financial instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. The securities traded on a stock exchange include: shares issued by companies, unit trusts, derivatives, pooled investment products and bonds. To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, it has to be listed there. Usually there is a central location at least for recordkeeping, but trade is less and less linked to such a physical place, as modern markets are electronic networks, which gives them advantages of speed and cost of transactions. Trade on an exchange is by members only. The initial offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets is driven by various factors which, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks (see stock valuation).
There is usually no compulsion to issue stock via the stock exchange itself, nor must stock be subsequently traded on the exchange. Such trading is said to be off exchange or over-the-counter. This is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a global market for securities.